Infant Body Composition and Adipokine Concentrations in Relation to Maternal Gestational Weight Gain

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of maternal gestational weight gain and body composition and their impact on offspring body composition and adipocytokine, glucose, and insulin concentrations at age 4 months. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective study including 31 mother-infant pairs (N = 62). Maternal body composition was assessed using doubly labeled water. Infant body composition was assessed at 4 months using air displacement plethysmography, and venous blood was assayed for glucose, insulin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and leptin concentrations. RESULTS Rate of gestational weight gain in midpregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat mass (r = 0.41, P = 0.03); rate of gestational weight in late pregnancy was significantly associated with infant fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Infant birth weight was also strongly correlated with infant fat-free mass at 4 months (r = 0.63, P = 0.0002). Maternal BMI and maternal fat mass were strongly inversely associated with infant IL-6 concentrations (r = -0.60, P = 0.002 and r = -0.52, P = 0.01, respectively). Infant fat-free mass was inversely related to infant adiponectin concentrations (r = -0.48, P = 0.008) and positively correlated with infant blood glucose adjusted for insulin concentrations (r = 0.42, P = 0.04). No significant associations for leptin were observed. CONCLUSIONS Timing of maternal weight gain differentially impacts body composition of the 4-month-old infant, which in turn appears to affect the infant's glucose and adipokine concentrations.

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